Методические указания для студентов первого курса
Всех технических специальностей
Составители: ст. преподаватели О.С. Атаманова, В.Д. Терентьева,
преподаватели О.В. Иванова, А.А. Ни, Е.В. Каминская, Ю.С. Кудинова, В.В. Курникова
Рецензент: канд. пед. наук, доцент каф. ин. яз. ТФ НГТУ, Т.П. Маковская
Работа выполнена на кафедре иностранных языков ТФ НГТУ
© Новосибирский государственный технический университет, 2008
Настоящие методические указания предназначены для студентов I курса всех технических специальностей НГТУ, изучающих английский язык (уровень владения языком А1 – Beginners).
Цель пособия - формирование навыков устной монологической и диалогической речи в сфере бытовой и профессиональной коммуникации в рамках изучаемых тем.
Методические указания включают в себя три модуля: « Информационные технологии» , «Основы инженерного дела», «Поступление на работу».
Каждый модуль содержит обширный лексико-грамматический материал , представленный упражнениями на развитие всех видов речевой деятельности – чтения , письма , аудирования и говорения. Предлагаемые виды упражнений могут выполняться в парах, группах или индивидуально в зависимости от целей, поставленных преподавателем.
Каждый модуль сопровождается приложениями, которые включают в себя дополнительные тексты, предназначенные как для самостоятельной, так и для аудиторной работы студентов.
I. Module I Information Technologies
1. Unit 1.Computers
2. Unit 2. Internet
3. Appendix 1. Supplementary Texts
4. Appendix 2. Tapescripts
II. Module II. Fundamentals of Engineering
1. Unit 1.Engineering:What is All About
2. Unit 2.Engineering Profession and Course Description.
3. Unit 3.The 21-st Centure Engineer
4. Unit 4.Technological Innovations
New Sources of Energy
5. Appendix 1. Tapescript to Ex.1.16
6. Appendix 2. Supplementary Texts
III. Module III. Applying for a Job
2. Appendix 1. Supplementary Texts
3. Appendix 2. Tapescripts
1.1. Read and remember new words:
access (n) ['ækses] подход, доступ
circuit (n) ['sɜ:kɪt] схема
short circuit (n) [ʃɔ:t 'sɜ:kɪt] короткое замыкание
connect (v) [kə'nekt] соединять, связывать, сочетать
connected [kə'nektɪd] связанный, соединенный
connection (n) [kə'nekʃn] связь, соединение, присоединение
convert (v) ['kɒnvɜ:t] преобразовывать, переделывать, конвертировать
data (n) ['deitə] данные, сведения, информация
digital (adj) ['dɪdʒɪt(ə)l] цифровой
download (v) ['daυnləud] загружать (в память)
due to (prep) [dju: tu:] благодаря
failure (n) ['fe ljə] невыполнение, отсутствие, провал
hardware (n) ['hɑ:dweə] элементы электронный устройств жарг. железо
software (n) ['sɒft'weə] программное обеспечение компьютера
huge (adj) [hju:dʒ] огромный, громадный
implementation (n) [ɪmplɪmen'teɪʃn] осуществление, выполнение
improve (v) [ɪm'pru:v] улучшать, совершенствовать
operating system ['ɒpəreɪtı ŋ ˈsıstəm] операционная система
print (v) [prɪnt] печатать
process (v) ['prəυses] обрабатывать
promote (v) [prə'məυt] продвигать, способствовать, поддерживать
protect (v) [prə'tekt] защищать, предохранять
safe (adj) [seɪf] безопасный, сохранный
screen (n) [skri:n] экран
sight (n) [saɪt] зрение
store (v) [stɔ:] сохранять
threat (n) [θret] угроза
transmit (v) [trænz'mɪt] передавать, отправлять, посылать
wire (n) [waɪə] провод, проволока
input (n) ['ɪnpυt] входные данные, ввод (данных)
output ['aυtpυt] вывод(данных), выпуск, отдача
Random Access Memory (RAM) ['rænd'əm 'ækses 'memərɪ ]запоминающее устройство с произвольной выборкой
1.2. Read and translate the following international words:
diagnose ['daɪ əɡnəυz]
1.3. Discuss the following questions in groups:
1. What is information?
2. What is technology?
3. What is information technology?
Read and try to understand the definition of information technology (IT)
Answer the question of 1.3
Information technology (IT), as defined by the information technology association of America (ITAA), is “the study, design, development, implementation, support and management of computer based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware”. IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, and transmit information.
1.4. Answer the following questions:
1.Have you ever used a computer?
2.When did you first use it?
3.Who was your first teacher?
4.What type of computer was it?
5.What operating system was it?
6.How often do you use the computer?
7.What do you usually use it for?
8.Can you explain what a computer is?
1.5 Read and say what parts of computer are the most important:
A computer is a machine for manipulating data according to a list of instructions. The parts of a computer you can touch, such as the monitor or the central processing unit (CPU) are hardware. All hardware except the CPU and the working memory are called peripherals. Computer programs are software. The operating system (OS) is software that controls the hardware. Most computers run the Microsoft Windows OS. MacOS and Linux are other operating systems.
The CPU controls how fast the computer processes data or information. We measure its speed in megahertz (Mhz) or gigahertz (Ghz).The higher the speed of the CPU, the faster the computer will run. We measure the random access memory (RAM) of the computer in megabytes (MB). RAM controls the performance of the computer when it is working and moves data to and from CPU. Programs with a lot of graphics need a large RAM to run well. The hard disk stores data and software programs. We measure the size of the hard disk in gigabytes (GB).
How can you protect your computer? Don't worry too much about viruses. You may never see one. There are just a few ways to become infected that you should be aware of. The sources seem to be service people, pirated games, putting floppies in publicly available PCs without write-protected tabs. Carry a virus-checking program and scan the PC before letting it write data onto floppies. There are actually two kinds of antivirus programs: virus shields, which detect viruses as they are infecting your PC, and virus scanners, which detect viruses once they've infected you. Viruses are something to worry about, but not a lot. A little common sense and the occasional virus scan will keep you virus-free.
Ways to prevent infecting of your computer:
n don’t use pirated software
n don’t forgot to update your antivirus program regularly
n don’t surf the Internet in case antivirus program is not installed.
Michael Riccioli, architect
“I want to buy a high-speed computer, so that I can get my reports finished quickly. I need _____(1)colour graphics to make my plans clear to the client. I have to use sophisticated programs so the computer must work with ____(2) software. I need something with an _____(3) memory to make it easy to expand the system.”
Hilary Davies, sales representative
“I need a lightweight computer which I can travel with, which is ____(4) and can be easily carried on the shoulder. It must be ____(5) with my office computer, and must work with a _____(6) printer as we need very high quality printouts.”
Ruben Greenberg, Harvard business student
“I don’t want anything too complicated, a word processor with a _____(7) disk drive will do, for _______(8) disks. I must have a _____(9) screen so that my eyes don’t get tired. I will also need a simple, cheap, ______(10) printer.”
Using Ex.1.5, 1.7 tell the class about the characteristics of the computer you use or the one you’d like to buy; how do you protect your computer from viruses?
1.11. Read and divide the text into some parts. Give a title to each part:
Nowadays, we cannot imagine our life without computers and the fact is that they have become so important that nothing can replace them. Since 1948 when the first computer was invented our life has changed so much that we can call it the period of digital revolution.
First computers differed from today's ones. They were so huge that some occupied 1-2 rooms or a building. But they were relatively slow. To better understand the very fast development of computer technology let's look back at some of the first stages of a progress. Computing devices were constructed in the 1930s and 1940s by Claude Shannon They had flexible programmability. Nowadays computers may also be as huge as the old ones but they are millions times faster. They are used mainly for complex operations to solve multipurpose tasks. Thanks to them people have access to enormous amount of information.
The next important stage in developing computer technology is the year of 1980. In this year a special team of IBM Company developed the first PC (Personal Computer). The operating system for this PCs was developed by very young talented programmers Bill Gates and Paul Allen, founders of Microsoft. The first PCs were very expensive and had a memory of 16k, ran with a processor speed 4.77 Mhz. Within the period of 10 years the Company has successfully upgraded the most important characteristics of PCs. Moreover the cost of buying a PC considerably decreased contributing greatly to its popularity. A PC became a commodity item and it has become the machine people can't deal with both at work and at home.
Computer technology changes fast, but a desktop PC (personal computer) usually has a tower, a separate monitor, a keyboard and a mouse. The CPU, modem, CD-ROM and floppy disk drives are usually inside the tower. A notebook is a portable computer with all these components inside one small unit. Notebooks have a screen, not a monitor, and are usually more expensive than desktops with similar specifications. It is also has a built-in speakers, keyboard, a web-camera, a microphone and some other devices.
1.12. Match the phrases (A) with their Russian equivalents (B):
A Bimagine our life товар широкого спроса nothing can replace them занимать здание digital revolution отличаться differ from относительно медленно occupy a building решать многофункциональные задачи relatively slow основатели flexible programmability успешно усовершенствованы to solve multipurpose tasks ничего не может их заменить enormous amount представить нашу жизнь founders of Microsoft огромный объем successfully upgraded революция в цифровой технике a commodity item легкая способность к программированию
2.1 Read and remember new words:
attribute (n) ['ætribju:t] свойство, характерный признак
at random наугад, наобум, наудачу
authority (n) [ə: 'θorəti] источник информации
beyond (prep) [bi'jond] свыше, за пределами
cyberspace(n) ['saibəspeis] киберпространство
destroy (v) [di’stroi] разрушать
feedback (n) ['fi:dbæk] обратная связь, отдача
join (v) [dʒɔɪn] соединять
link (n) [liήk] связь, соединение
network (n) ['netwɜːk]сеть
nuclear (adj) ['nju:kliə] ядерный
satellite (n) ['sǽtəlait] спутник
share (v) [ʃeə] распределять
surf (v) [sɜːf] «путешествовать» по Интернету
2.2. Read and translate the following international words:
2.3. Match the words / phrases to the definitions:
E.g.: 1c1. the internet 2. the web 3. a web site 4. surfing the net 5. e-mail 6. downloading a. moving from one document or web site to another to find information b. copying information from a web site to your own computer c. a network of computers all over the world joined by phone lines satellite or cable d. a system linking millions of documents stored on the internet e. . the place on the internet where a company/organization/ etc. stores its documents f. electronic messages sends to someone over the internet
2.4. Fill in the gaps:
network, cyberspace, random, create, transfer, navigate
1. You can sometime have a computer … that is not connected to the Internet.
2. It is easy to … around the screen with a mouse.
3. Berners-Lee discovered how to … links between computers in new ways.
4. Some people surf the Internet at … just to see what they can find.
5. People used the Internet to … information from one place to another.
6. When you surf the Internet, you are traveling in … .
2.5. a) Listen and mark the statements as T (true) or F (false):
1. The Internet was started in 1990.
2. The Internet links computers.
3. To visit a web site, you simply get connected to a phone line.
4. The main use of the Internet is to find mistakes.
5. Using the Internet is getting more expensive.
b) Listen again and correct the false statements, as in the example:
The Internet wasn’t started in 1990. It was started in 1968.
2.6. Read and translate the text:
The Internet (FAQs)
(Frequently Asked Questions)
The Internet is without doubt one of the most important inventions in history. It was started in 1968 by the US governments, but at first it was used mainly by scientists.
Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web (www) when he discovered a way to jump to different files on his computer using the random, or unplanned, links between them. He then wrote a simple coding system, called HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language), to create links to files on any computer connected to the network. This was possible because each file had an individual address, or URL (Uniform Resource Locator). He used a set of transfer rules, called HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol), to link web files together across the Internet. Berners-Lee also invented the world’s first browser. This lets you locate and view web pages and also navigate from one link to another.
The WWW became available to everyone in1991 and the number of Internet users grew from 600,000 to 40 million in 5 years. Today, that number is much larger and there are now many browsers that provide web pages, information and other services.
What exactly is the Internet?
The Internet is a network (several networks, in fact) of millions of computers around the world, connected by phone lines, satellite or cable, so that all the computers on the net can exchange information with each other. The Internet links computers and World Wide Web is a system which links the information stored inside these computers. The main use of the Internet is to find information – for your schoolwork or job, or just to find out more about your hobbies, sports or current events. You can also use the Internet to read newspapers and magazines, play games, plan your holiday or buy things from your favorite shop. E-mail makes possible to send electronic messages anywhere in the world in seconds, and you can use the Internet to chat with people and make new friends.
If you don’t already used to Internet, all you need to get started is a computer, a modem and a phone line. Using the Internet is getting cheaper and easier all the time. Are you ready to surf the Net? There is a whole exciting Internet world out there waiting for you!
2.7. Fill in the words from the list, than make sentences using the completed phrases:
web, surf, exchange, computer, change, get, electronic, enter, current, phone, important
1. … inventions;
2. to … the world;
3. … lines;
4. to … information;
5. … documents;
6. a … site;
7. to … the address;
8. a … screen;
9. to … the net;
10. … events;
11. to … started
2.8. Read the text again, and then use the notes below to talk about the Internet:Internet= network of computers around the world. You need: computer, modem and phone line To surf the net you: enter a web site address, connected to the web site, download document, page appears on screen, click on underlined words connected to the new documents/web sites. You can use it to: find information for work/job/hobbies/sports; current events, read newspapers/magazines, play games, plan holidays, buy things, send electronic messages (e-mail), chat with people, make new friends.
2.9. Rewrite the sentences using the following verbs to introduce Indirect Speech:
complain of, thank for, ask for, advise, wonder if, suggest, agree, want to know, explain, recommend
1. Tom said: “My computer keeps downloading information very slowly. Can you help me?”
2. Ann answered: “You’d better call a service and update it.”
3. Tom said: Thank you for good advice. Moreover my printer is not working properly. Don’t know what to do?”
4. Ann asked: “May be it’s out-of-date. I think you should buy more advanced version of laser printer.”
5. Tom asked: “You are right. It’s really so. Ann have you any idea how to use this program?”
6. Ann answered: “I’m afraid. I’m not an expert in the field. I’m sure you find some recommendations in the Net.”
Use the browser to surf the Internet at random. Find five interesting web sites to tell the class about, write down the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of each web site and present the list to the group.
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Computer – it`s a machine for carrying out calculations and performing specified transformations on information, such as storing, sorting, correlating, retrieving and processing data. The main disadvantage of computers is that staring at a screen for long periods of time can be damaging to the eyes, and sitting on a chair for hours at a time is certainly not healthy. Secondly computers distract from social interactions such as conversation. Also, people can be inclined to become anti-social and stay at home and use their computer. Finally, the most persuasive argument against the use of computers is that the more jobs are done by computers the less are done by people. It isn`t very good for increasing people population. However, the advantages of computers are numerous, such as undeniable educational benefits, especially to children. School subjects become more interesting when presented on a computer screen. Moreover, computers can be fun with a seemingly endless variety of games which can be played on them. In addition, computers are valuable to any business, making life easier and saving time by being capable of storing and retrieving vast amounts of information at he touch of the button. I think computer has a lot of disadvantages and advantages. Yet, despite the health problems, risk to jobs and personal interaction, it seems that as long as the use of computers is regulated the benefits computers provide to education and businesses are invaluable. Computers make our life easier.
Word processing is the use of computers to type, edit, and print letters, reports, articles, and other documents. It has replaced typewriting for many tasks at home, in school, and in the office. Business people, authors, students, and lawyers turn to word processing as a tool for writing.
Three main types of equipment are used for word processing: (1) personal computers, (2) dedicated word processors, and (3) electronic typewriters. Personal computers need special instructions called programs or software to perform word processing. Dedicated word processors are computers that do only word processing. Most dedicated word processors have built-in word processing software. Electronic typewriters resemble electric typewriters but include a built-in dedicated computer. The computer provides limited word processing capabilities, such as the ability to store and automatically type a small amount of text.
Personal computers and dedicated word processors display characters on a computer screen as the user types them. Words, lines, paragraphs, and pages can be added, deleted, moved, or copied with a few keystrokes or the click of a button on a handheld control called a mouse. Most word processing programs and dedicated word processors enable the user to check for spelling errors. Many can check grammar in a limited way.
At the touch of a key, the user can print out an entire document. The computer can store the document on a magnetic disk, so additional copies or corrections can easily be made later. In addition, most word processing programs for personal computers and some dedicated word processors can sort and merge lists and perform limited mathematical computations.
Personal computers are the most powerful and versatile of the word processing machines. They can be programmed to do many things besides word processing. Computers can transfer information to other computers linked in a network or, using a device called a modem, send information over telephone lines. Personal computers are also the most expensive word processing machines. Dedicated word processors are a less expensive option for individuals and small businesses whose computer needs are limited to word processing.
Electronic typewriters can perform only the most basic word processing functions, such as inserting, deleting, and underlining text. Most can also check for spelling errors. On many electronic typewriters, a small screen displays material as it is typed. Many electronic typewriters have a memory, but the amount of text it can store is much smaller than in a personal computer or dedicated word processor.
Computer companies introduced relatively expensive dedicated word processors in the mid-1970's. Prices fell in the 1980's, and personal computers and word processing programs for personal computers became common. Personal computers are the most widely used form of word processor.
In the last two decades cybernetics have experienced a major breakthrough .This led to the utilization of computers at nearly all parts of our daily life, from personal computers to complicated surgery performing. Surely the uptake of this technology facilitates a lot of difficult tasks but is this excessive dependence ripping the warmth of our lives? In this essay, I will outline how the availability of computers affects our lives.
Most of the daily tasks an individual experiences are time and effort consuming. These two fundamental qualities could be tremendously saved by the use of computers. The average period required to prepare a decent meal for a middle-class family is around an hour to and hour and a half when using traditional methods. This time could be literally reduced to half if computerized decivesare used instead. Moreover, a busy businessman is enabled to easily close a profitable deal just with a touch on this highly programmed laptop while enjoying his family vacation and not having to exert an extra effort of traveling long distances just to sign a deal.
On the other hand, new generations are growing remarkably dependent on these modern utilities, which make them handicapped when it comes to preparing a cup of tea. In addition, psychologists suggest that one of the main reasons for suicidal rate increase is recent electric inventions. This is due to that humans by nature stay emotionally healthy through socializing, but due to the importance of modern technology to maintain a financially satisfying standard of life they gradually insulate themselves. As time passes by each of these individuals gets stuck in a vicious circle of loneliness that eventually leads to suicidal attempts specially among youngsters.
In conclusion, similar to every other invention computers has its benefits and drawbacks, I personally think it all depends upon how we use the given tools . Moderation is the key here to keep the balance and allow us to live in harmony.
A web browser is the software program you use to access the World Wide Web, the graphical portion of the Internet. The first browser, called NCSA Mosaic, was developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications in the early 1990s. The easy-to-use point-and-click interface helped popularize the Web, although few could then imagine the explosive growth that would soon occur. Although many different browsers are available, Microsoft Internet Explorer, Firefox and Netscape Navigator (a distant third) are the most popular. (Many Mac users prefer the Safari browser.) At one time, Netscape (now owned by AOL) and Microsoft put so much money into their browsers that competitors found it hard to keep up. The battle between the two companies to dominate the market led to continual improvements to the software. Version 5.0 and later releases of either browser are excellent choices. (By the way, both are based on NCSA Mosaic.)
Firefox, a more recent entry, was released in November 2004; version 2.0, with enhanced security and other new features was released in October 2006 and has been updated periodically.
You can download Internet Explorer, Firefox and Netscape Navigator for free from each company's website. If you have one browser already, you can test out the others. Also note that there are slight differences between the Windows and Macintosh versions.
Outfitted with a browser, you can surf to your heart's content, but it's easy to get lost in this vast electronic network. That's where your browser really helps, as it comes loaded with all sorts of handy features. Fortunately, you can learn the basics in just a few minutes, then take the time to explore the more advanced functions.
Since the three browsers have more similarities than differences, we'll primarily cover those. For the most up-to-date information about each browser and a complete tutorial, check the online handbook under the Help menu or go to the websites of the respective software companies.
The World Wide Web is the most popular part of the Internet by far. Once you spend time on the Web you will begin to feel like there is no limit to what you can discover. The Web allows rich and diverse communication by enabling you to access and interact with text, graphics, animation, photos, audio and video.
So just what is this miraculous creation? On the simplest level, the Web physically consists of your personal computer, web browser software, a connection to an Internet service provider, computers called servers that host digital data, and routers and switches to direct the flow of information.
The Web is known as a client-server system. Your computer is the client; the remote computers that store electronic files are the servers. Here's how it works:
Let's say you want to visit the Louvre museum website. First you enter the address or URL of the website in your web browser (more about this shortly). Then your browser requests the all the data files that comprise the web page from the web server that host the Louvre's site. The server sends the data over the Internet to your computer. Your web browser assembles and interprets the data, displaying it on your computer screen.
The Louvre's website also has links to the sites of other museums, such as the Vatican Museum. If you click on that link, you will access the web server for the Vatican Museum. In this way, information scattered all across the globe is linked together.
The "glue" that holds the Web together is called hypertext and hyperlinks. This feature allows electronic files on the Web to be linked so you can jump easily between them. On the Web, you navigate--commonly known as browsing or surfing--through pages of information based on what interests you at that particular moment.
To access the Web you need a web browser, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox or Netscape Navigator. How does your web browser distinguish between web pages and other types of data on the Internet? Web pages are written in a computer language called Hypertext Markup Language or HTML.
Think of the World Wide Web as a vast collection of electronic files stored on millions of computers all around the world. Hypertext links these files together. Uniform Resource Locators or URLs are the addresses used to locate the files. The information contained in a URL gives you the ability to jump from one web page to another with just a click of your mouse. When you type a URL into your browser or click on a hypertext link, your browser sends a request to a remote computer, called a web server, to download one or more files. Every URL is unique and identifies one specific file.
What does a typical URL look like? Here are a few examples:
The home page for Learn the Net.
A directory of files at MIT available for downloading.
A newsgroup on rose gardening.
A blog about soccer.
The first part of a URL (before the two slashes) tells you the type of resource or method of access at that address. For example:
http - a hypertext document or directory
ftp - a file available for downloading or a directory of these files
news - a newsgroup
file - a file located on a local drive, for instance, the hard drive of your computer
The second part is typically the address of the computer where the data or service is located. Additional parts may specify the name of a file, the port to connect to, or the text to search for in a database.
You enter the URL of a site or web page by typing it into the Address bar of your web browser.
Browsers can store the URLs that you want to revisit by adding them to a special list. Netscape Navigator and Firefox call them Bookmarks; Microsoft Explorer calls them Favorites. Once you add a URL to your list, you return to that web page simply by clicking on the name on the list, instead of retyping the entire URL.
Most of the URLs you will use start with http, which stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol, the method by which HTML files are transferred over the Web. Here are few other things to know about URLs:
A URL usually has no spaces.
A URL always uses forward slashes (//).
URLs aren't case sensitive. So typing "http://www.learnthenet.com" or "HTTP://WWW.LEARNTHENET.COM" or any variation of upper and lower case letters takes you to the same page.
If you type a URL incorrectly, your browser will not be able to locate the site or resource you want. Should you get an error message or access the wrong site, make sure you spelled the address correctly.
You can find the URL behind any link by placing your cursor over the link. The pointer turns into a hand and the URL appears in your browser's status bar, usually located at the bottom of your browser window.
To learn more about URLs, read the World Wide Web Consortium's Fact Sheet on URLs.
Online Music: Turn on & Tune In
If you're a music fan, there's no better source than the Internet. A high-speed connection and a good set of speakers turn your PC into a digital jukebox. With online music services, you can listen to commercial-free channels or choose from your favorite artists and songs; others allow you to burn songs to a CD or load them on a portable player for mobile listening.
As the list of online music services continues to grow, you will undoubtedly wonder which is best. Unfortunately, there's no easy answer. The right one for you depends on your musical taste and how you like to listen to music.
How They Work
Music services break down into two basic types: subscription and non-subscription. With non-subscription services, you pay to download individual songs or an entire album. Apple's iTunes Music Store has sold over a billion songs at US $.99.
With subscription services you pay a monthly fee to access libraries of a million or more songs. But you don't actually own the songs. Once you end your subscription, you can no longer listen to your music, unless you've actually purchased individual songs. Most subscription services also charge an additional fee for their "To-Go" service, which let's you load songs on a portable device. When evaluating a service, consider your listening habits.
Perhaps the most important question is whether the service has the music you want. It doesn't matter what it costs if you don't like the tunes. While most services boast libraries of more than a million songs, it's quality, not quantity that matters. For instance eMusic specializes in non-mainstream artists--terrific if you like Mingus, but not if you're a Madonna fan.
The good news is that most of the services offer a free trial, since you won't really know what's stored in the music vault until after you join. If you don't like the service, be sure to cancel before the trial period is up or you'll be billed for at least a month.
There's nothing to prevent you from using a mix of services--downloading songs from MSN Music and subscribing to Napster for everyday listening. Since most services only require a month-to-month commitment, you can cancel at any time if you're unhappy. To choose the right service, it helps to understand a bit about digital music files and copyrights.
Digital Music File Formats
You've probably heard about MP3 files, the digital format that launched the online music revolution in the 1990s. It shrinks the size of audio data while preserving sound quality, so music files can be easily distributed over the Internet. While MP3 remains very popular, two other file formats are hot on its heels.
AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) has improved on MP3 by requiring less data to reproduce the same sound quality. Songs downloaded from Apple's iTunes Music Store are encoded in this format.
WMA (Windows Media Audio) has the same audio quality as MP3 with only half the file size. This means that you can store twice as many songs on a hard drive or portable player than with MP3.
While there are other formats in use, AAC, MP3 and WMA are the big three formats used by digital music services. Your personal computer can probably play songs encoded in any of the formats, but most portable music players cannot. For instance, iPods play MP3 and AAC files, but not WMA files. Bottom line: Your portable player may determine which service you can use.
Apple's iPod has an 80% share of the portable player market.
The Rights Stuff
It took the music industry a long time to embrace the digital music revolution, because it feared losing control of its product. Since the industry makes its money by selling CDs, if people can freely exchange perfect digital copies of songs, well...there goes the profit. To allay this fear, engineers have built technical safeguards into some digital file formats that control duplication and sharing of music. Referred to as Digital Rights Management or DRM, both AAC and WMA files employ DRM technology (MP3 files don't).
This is important because it restricts what you can do with songs you download. For instance, you can burn a song to a CD only a limited number of times.
(Frequently Asked Questions)
The Internet is without doubt one of the most important inventions in history. It was started in 1968 by the US government, but at first it was used mainly by scientists. Since 1990, when the World Wide Web was created, it has changed the world, and its uses are growing every day.
1. What exactly is the Internet?
The Internet is a network (several networks, in fact) of millions of computers around the world, connected by phone lines, satellite or cable, so that all the computers on the net can exchange information with each other.
2. That’s the same thing as the Web, isn’t it?
Not quite. The internet links computers, and the World Wide Web is a system which links the information stored inside these computers.
3. What is a web site, and how do I visit one?
A company or organization stores its information in electronic documents on one of the Internet computers, somewhere in the world. This computer space – the company’s web site – has an address, in the same way that every telephone has a number. To visit a web site, you simply enter the address. Your computer is connected to the web site, a document is downloaded, and a page appears on your computer screen.
4. How do I “surf the net”?
When you visit a web site looking for information, some words on the page may be underlined, showing that there is more information about the subject in another document. If you click on one of these words, the Web automatically connects your computer to a new document or web site, even if this is stored thousands of kilometers away. You’re surfing the Net!
5. What can I use the Internet for?
The main use of the Internet is to find information – for your schoolwork or job, or just to find out more about your hobbies, sports or current events. You can also use the Internet to read newspapers and magazines, play games, plan your holiday or buy things from your favorite shops. E-mail makes it possible to send electronic messages anywhere in the world in seconds, and you can use the Internet to “chat” with people and make new friends.
6. What do I need in order to use the Internet?
If you don’t already use the Internet, all you need to get started is a computer, a modem and a phone line. Using the Internet is getting cheaper and easier all the time.
Are you ready to surf the net? There’s a whole exciting Internet world out there waiting for you!
Read the text.
What is Engineering?
Almost everything we use in modern life is made by engineers. In general, engineering is a science that deals with the design, construction and operation of structures, machines, engines and other devices. Engineers use theory for producing practical answers. We can say that engineering puts ideas into action. The term “engineering” is difficult to translate into Russian because it has a lot of meanings. It can be translated as “инженерное дело”,”разработка”, “строительство”. There are a lot of different types of engineering, which are called branches. So the whole science of engineering can be divided into the following main branches: electrical, mechanical, civil, electronic. There also exist several specialized areas which may be characterized as subfields of the major branches. Now let’s say a few words about each branch.
Electrical engineering, for example, is one of the widest fields of engineering. It deals with systems and devices that use electric power and signals. The subfields of this branch are lighting, electricity generation, electrical installations, etc.
Mechanical engineering is concerned with design, testing, building and operation of machinery of all types. A mechanical engineer must be trained in mechanics, hydraulics, and metallurgy and machine design. The subfields of mechanical engineering are heating and ventilation, marine engineering, automobile engineering, aeronautical engineering.
Civil engineering deals with the design of large buildings, roads, bridges, railway lines, airports and other constructions. A civil engineer must know the properties of materials, hydraulics and fluid mechanics. The main subfields of this branch are construction engineering and hydraulic engineering.
Also we should mention such branches as mining and medical engineering, which belong partly to mechanical and partly to electrical. Medical engineers, for example, create and deal with high-tech equipment - body scanners, X-ray machines, life-support systems.
Electronic engineering is concerned with the development of components and equipment for communication, computing, and so on.
One more branch of engineering which should be singled out because it can exist in any area is safety engineering. Its object is to prevent accidents, developing methods and procedures to safeguard workers.
To sum it up we can say that all the branches of engineering have a lot in common - they use science to develop industry, manufacture and to improve our life.
1.5.Find in the text the equivalents of the following Russian phrases.
a) наука, которая занимается…;
b) …внедряет идеи в жизнь;
c) …делится на следующие основные отрасли;
d) производство электроэнергии;
e) заниматься конструированием всех видов оборудования;
f) отопление и вентиляция;
g) проектирование больших сооружений;
h) гидравлика и гидромеханика;
i) разработка оборудования и его компонентов;
j) системы жизнеобеспечения;
k) обеспечение безопасности рабочих;
l) иметь много общего;
m) делать жизнь людей лучше.
Match the synonyms.
create be concerned with
deal with develop
Find (consulting Internet, manuals or other sources) the answers for the following questions. (If you’ve already answered them in the table, then check your answerers). You can also find the facts you were interested in.
1) What is the name of the faculty?
2) What is the date of foundation of the faculty?
3) What are the most interesting and important facts in its history?
4) Who is the dean of the faculty?
5) What is the number of the students studying at the faculty?
6) How many departments does the faculty have? Name them.
7) What are the entrance exams?
8) What specialities can one choose entering the faculty? Which one have you chosen (are going to chose)?
9) What is the structure of the course? What sciences and how many years do you need to study for getting the degrees of Bachelor, Engineer, Master of Science?
10) How many years of foreign language study does the curriculum imply?
11) Does the faculty support the best students? In what way?
12) What postgraduate program is offered at the faculty?
The 21st Century Engineer.
capable good at learning
flexible can think of new and interesting ideas
complex introducing new things, ideas, ways of doing
intelligent made up of many different parts
innovative having the ability necessary for smth.
imaginative can bend easily without breaking
cognitive letting to acquire knowledge
3.6 Discuss in pairs and give a definition for a word innovation.
sum of its part
Answer the questions.
a) What do you know about nanotechnology?
b) What can we build with nanotechnology today and what will we be able to build in future?
Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. Thus it’s the science of building tiny things. Today we usually make things by shaping materials – cutting, grinding, milling, etc. But in the future, we’ll be able to work on a smaller scale and build things atom by atom.
Today scientists can build nanowires – extremely strong tubes that are just four atoms wide. And when they have the manufacturing systems, they’ll be able to build anything we want – diamonds, water, food, robots, etc. We’ll be able to make all kinds of things smaller, lighter, cheaper, stronger, and smarter.
We are at the start of a technological revolution and nanotechnology will affect every part of our lives – cars, computers, medicine, energy supplies, food, clothes. It will offer better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer products for home, for communications, for transportation, for agriculture, and for industry in general. And it will happen sooner than most people think. By 2010 you won’t be able to count the number of businesses using nanotechnology.
affect take away
perform pour out
shape carry out
New Sources of Energy
Answer the question.
· What new sources of energy have you heard about? Give examples of their usage.
Solar energy from plant and animal residues (остатки)
Wind energy from heat inside the earth
Geothermal energy from the sun
Modern biomass energy from seawater movement and
Ocean energy from small dams, such as those filled by
Small hydroelectric energy from moving air
One of the most promising researches is the development of power stations with direct transformation of solar energy. Almost all energy comes from the Sun. The energy stored in coal, oil, and natural gas is the result of photosynthesis carried by plants that lived hundreds of million years ago. Wind energy is actually the movement of the atmosphere driven by the heat from the Sun. It was Russia that was the first in the world to develop and test a photoelectric battery of 32,000 volts, which made it possible to concentrate solar radiation. Currently solar energy is used in two ways: for heat (thermal) and to generate electricity (photovoltaic).
However, the efficiency of a solar power station is considerably reduced because of limited time of its work during the year. But it is possible to improve the efficiency of solar power stations by developing different combinations of solar power stations and traditional ones- thermal, atomic and hydraulic. Today some engineers are working at the problem of developing electric power stations with the use of a thermal-chemical cycle. It will operate on products of the transformation of solar energy, while the “solar” chemical reactor uses CO2 and water steam of the thermal power station. The result is that we have a closed cycle.
In Kamchatka there are geothermal power stations operating on hot water-steam mixture from the depth of about a kilometer. In some projects water will be heated by the warmth of mountains at a depth of four-five km.
It is planned that plants working on energy of the solar heat provided by the sun will be built on a larger scale. It is important that all these advances in developing new sources of energy and improving the old ones help to solve the energy problem as a whole and they won’t have negative effects on the environment.
Complete the sentences.
1. Almost all energy……….
2. The energy stored in natural resources is the result of……….
3. Wind energy is actually………….
4.Solar energy is used to in two ways: ……..
5.It is possible to improve the efficiency of……..
6.A thermal-chemical cycle will operate on……….
7.In Kamchatka there are geothermal power stations……..
8.All these advances in developing new sources of energy and improving the old ones………..
Match the synonyms.
1. machine a. to behave differently as a result of smth.
2. instructions b. boring
3. to design c. surroundings
4. to react d. device
5. environment e. directions
6. routine f. to project
A We can thank the world of literature for the words robot and robotics. The word robot was first used by the Czech playwright Karel Capek who in 1921 wrote a drama, RUR (Rossum’s Universal Robots). It was about machines that could move like human beings and do their work. (1)________ Asimov used it in a short story in 1941. B Robots often star in films too, for example dangerous machines like Terminator or cute ones like R2D2 in “Star Wars”. (2)_______ Industrial robots don’t have personalities and they don’t think like people. Most real robots are designed to save people from dangerous jobs (3)_______ or boring, routine work (4)_______. C A simple robot is made of: · A mechanical device (5)_______ that can react to its environment. · Sensors that (6)_______ give information to device. · Systems or computer programs that (7)_______ give the device instructions.
Read the text and give each paragraph (A, B, C) the correct heading.
Application Structure Historical facts
Answer the following question:
1. Which title is the best to the whole text? Why?
a. Imaginary robots in film and fiction.
b. Robots: fantasy and reality.
Match the words (A) with their corresponding definitions (B).
1. device a. attractive, clever
2. to react b. a machine that can do human tasks automatically
3. cute c. to make a plan of smth., to create
4. robot d. likely to lead to physical harm and danger
5. to design e. a piece of equipment
6. dangerous f. to behave differently as a result of smth.
Writing and Speaking
ROBOTS HELP PEOPLE
Many of the robots in use today do jobs that require great strength or pose danger to people working in some environments. For example, robots are particularly useful in the automobile industry where parts of automobiles are about 100 kilos or more and it’s difficult to deal with them. Robots can easily move heavy components between workstations.
Spray painting is another task suited to robots because robots do need to breathe. They are not affected by toxic fumes.
The third in the list of useful jobs for robots is the assembly of electronic parts. Robots are perfect at installing chips in printed circuit boards and never put a chip in the wrong place. Earlier robots could not usually see and hear but newer types of robots are equipped with video cameras and other sensing devices. These robots are used in space projects, nuclear reactor stations and underwater works. Such jobs are especially difficult and dangerous for human workers that is why they are more and more assumed by robots.Types of Jobs for Robots Reason Automobile industry Spray Painting Assembly of Electronic Parts Space Projects, Nuclear Reactor Stations, Underwater works etc.
4.3.20. In pairs, discuss advantages and disadvantages of using robots in industry and different spheres of science and life. Discuss the question: “Can Robots replace people in future?”
4.3.21. Answer the following questions:
1. Can you give any example of a robot used for entertainment?
2. Have you heard about such robots as AIBO and ASIMO?
Work in two groups, read the information about Robot (A)/(B). Tell about Robot (A)/(B) the students of another group.
A. AIBO(Artificial Intelligence roBot) is a robot dog, developed by Sony. He is 27,4 cm long, 26,6 cm high and weighs 1,5 kilos. You can control him with a computer, a remote control or with voice instructions. He needs a battery and can operate for about 1,5 hours. The price is about 1300 $. AIBO is not just a joy. Sony developed and tested him as an electronic friend for old people.
Here some things AIBO can do:
· walk and run backwards and forwards
· stand on his back legs and lower his front legs
· see and remember things
· understand the name you give him
· understand 75 different voices ( Sit! Come ! No !, etc.)
· take photographs
· make robotic dog sounds
· learn new actions
B. ASIMO (Advanced Step in Innovative MObility) is a humanoid robot, developed by the Honda Motor Co. He is 120 cms tall and he weighs 43 kgs. You can control him with a computer or give him voice instructions.
ASIMOis a service robot. He is designed to help people. He can walk and climb stairs, so he can carry food upstairs to a sick person and do other jobs around the home.
Here are some things ASIMO can do:
· walk forwards and backwards
· bend and straighten his joints
· adjust the size of the steps he takes
· climb up and down stairs
· turn left, right and around
· raise and lower his arms 105 degrees
· operate light switches
· open and close doors
· carry loads
· push cars
to bend – сгибать
joints – суставы
to adjust- to regulate